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Depression vs Sadness

A Passer-by notices and kindly asks:
“Hello my friend. How are you?”
“I’m not happy.” Depressed Little Prince replies.
“I’m indeed upset.”
“So…Are you Depressed Little Prince?” The passer-by asks.
Depressed Little Prince answers, “Perhaps I am merely sad.”

Differences between Sadness and Depression
Sadness Depression
An ordinary emotional reaction to adversities such as loss or disappointment. It is nonetheless normal and acceptable provided that the response and perception remain realistic, logical, and undistorted. Thoughts and perception are distorted in some ways. The effects of such distortion can be a serious burden.
An explicit sadness which one understands that there is a way out, either knowingly or unconsciously, and that the sadness will go away. A feeling of a never-ending unhappiness.
Alleviate the blues by diverting attention to other things. At least two weeks of incessant barrage of depressive thoughts.
Grieve goes away eventually; the low mood does little to one’s self-esteem. Depressive symptoms tend to persist or recur, causing harm to one’s self-esteem
Does not affect much on interpersonal relationships, or performance at school or at work. Affects interpersonal relationships, performance at school or at work significantly.